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IOD-PT - Inclusive On-Demand Public Transport: exploring user needs and possible solutions

In this project, led by KTH Royal Institute of Technology, along with our project partners RISE, Nobina & Värmlandstrafik, we wish to study the case of an established on-demand public transportation service, in preparation for subsequently designing concepts for inclusive on-demand public transport. For the study, we chose a transportation service in the town of Säffle, called X-linjen, operational since 2022.

Värmlandstrafik workers posing by X-linjen vehicles
Värmlandstrafik workers posing by X-linjen vehicles


With the transport sector experiencing a major shift as cities develop quickly and technology evolves rapidly, people's travel preferences are changing. Due to inadequate public transport and increasing personal car users- and ownership being met with unprecedented challenges, utilizing the concept of on-demand public transport can be a potential solution to address these challenges, particularly when tailored to center around human needs and preferences. Integrating on-demand solutions with the latest technologies and incorporating user-centric design can create transport systems that can be tailored to the varying and evolving requirements of the users. As opposed to inflexible schedules and paths, these systems provide on-demand access to various transportation means, seamlessly integrating public transit, ride-sharing, micro-mobility, and even autonomous vehicles.

However, there have been several challenges in realizing the full potential of on-demand services. Some of the common challenges in the context of on-demand services are concerns associated with trust and reliability, feelings of exclusion due to lack of competence with the technology, challenges to steer car-dependent users towards alternative solutions, especially in suburban and rural areas, availability of mobility services and lack of information regarding schedules. Inclusive public transport is thus an important challenge, all the more so with on-demand.

Project description

Using co-design workshops, and participatory design methods associated with social practice theories with users of the Säffle on-demand service as well as the key transport providers and operators of the service (Nobina and Värmlandstrafik), the project aims to understand user needs and expectations from on-demand transport and to use these insights to provide recommendations and guidelines for designing an inclusive on-demand solution that caters to all sections of society. Not only to make the mobility system more accessible but also to contribute to sustainable travel habits and societal development.

Project Facts


KTH Royal Institute of Technology, RISE, Nobina & Värmlandstrafik




Expected start date: November 2023

Expected end date: October 2024

Project Contacts

Project partners and funders

Nobina logo
Värmlandstrafik logo
Rise logo
Vinnova logo